The Open Ocean and LMEs assessment was made possible through the following support from various partners and agencies.

Lead agency


Open Ocean component
led by Albert Fischer, UNESCO-IOC, Paris, France,
Coordinator: Sarah Grimes

Large Marine Ecosystems component
led by Julian Barbière, UNESCO-IOC, Paris, France,
Coordinator: Sherry Heileman

Implementing agency

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

The Open Ocean and Large Marine Ecosystems components of the TWAP project were led by UNESCO-IOC. UNESCO-IOC contributed to the EC-FP7 project GEOWOW by providing Ocean Essential Variables to GEOSS Common Infrastructure and by developping cloud-computing based services to process CMIP5 future projections based on IPCC scenarios. In addition, marine biodiversity baseline indicators are provided by the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), a global project under the auspices of the International Oceanographic Data and information Exchange (IODE) programme of UNESCO-IOC. The GEOWOW database and web servers are hosted at the IOC Project office for IODE in Oostende (Belgium).
Core funds contributing to the development of One Shared Ocean website and the Open Ocean and LME assessments

The European Commission through GEOWOW: "This project has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 282915".

GEOWOW and TWAP are co-financing partners. The goals and deliverables of both projects are mutually supportive in improving access to marine ecosystem data for use in global policy decisions now and into the future.

Other Contributions from:

The UNESCO-IOC through the Global Ocean Observing System

Représentation Permanente de la France auprès de l'UNESCO

Technical development of UNESCO-IOC
Data Information Manager: Bruno Combal, IOC-UNESCO
Partners that have been involved in GEOWOW and TWAP activities and that have contributed to the OneSharedOcean web portal and overall assessment results include:


Center for Resources Management and Environmental Studies

Open Ocean and LMEs: governance indicators

MAHON, Robin (lead)

FANNING, Lucia, Dalhousie University

GJERDE, Kristina M., IUCN

YOUNG, Oran, University of California

REID, Michael, Dalhousie University

DOUGLAS, Selicia, Dalhousie University


Center For Marine Assessment and Planning

Open Ocean: Ocean Health Index, Cumulative Human Impact, Risk

LMEs, contribution: Ocean Health Index, Cumulative Human Impact

HALPERN, Benjamin (lead)

FRAZIER, Melanie; BEST, Benjamin; LONGO, Catherine and STEWART LOWNDES, Julie, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California, Santa Barbara

The Marine Affairs Program at Dalhousie University

Open Ocean and LMEs contribution: governance indicators

FANNING, Lucia (lead)

European Space Agency

Leader of the GEOWOW project

van BEMMELEN, Joost (lead)

Open Ocean, contribution: final production of some infographics

MATHIEU, Pierre-Philippe (lead)

Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection

Open Ocean: pollutants and plastics

GESAMP Task Team (lead)

BOELENS, Rick, Independent, Chairman & editor

KERSHAW, Peter, Independent, Radioactivity, marine debris & co-editor

BAKKER, Dorothee, Univ. East Anglia, Ocean Acidification

BAKER, Alex, Univ. East Anglia, Atmospheric Inputs of nutrients and heavy metals

HEDGECOCK, Ian, Inst. Atmospheric Res. (CNR, Italy), Atmospheric Inputs of mercury

BOWMER, Tim, European Chemicals Agency (Finland), Underwater noise

ANGELIDES, Michail, IAEA (Monaco), Metals & organic pollutants

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

Open Ocean, contribution:

LMEs, contribution

SEITZINGER, Sybil (lead)

MAYORGA, Emilio, Univ. Washington / APL

Intergovernamental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange

Open Ocean: OBIS database

APPELTANS, Ward (lead)

DUJARDIN, Frédéric, UGhent



WEBB, Thomas J., U. Sheffield

The European Commission Joint Research Centre

Open Ocean: GEOWOW, contributing to GEOSS Common Infrastructure

CRAGLIA, Massimo (lead)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Open Ocean: Aragonite Saturation State projections

van HOOIDONK, Ruben (lead)

LMEs: SHERMAN, Kenneth

Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Open Ocean: phytoplankton, chlorophyll


Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science

Open Ocean: zooplankton

BATTEN, Sonia (lead)

Terradue Srl, Rome, Italy

Open Ocean: GEOWOW, cloud computer infrastructure

CAUMONT, Hervé (lead)

The University of British Columbia

Fisheries Centre – Sea Around Us

Open Ocean: Fisheries

LMEs: fish and fisheries

PAULY, Daniel (lead)

LAM, Vicky

UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre

LMEs: Coral reefs, mangrove, marine protected areas

JONES, Miranda (lead); MCOWEN, Chris (lead); VAN BOCHOVE, Jan-Willem (lead)

BLYTH, Simon



World Climate Research Programme

Open Ocean: Climate change

SOMMERIA, Gilles (lead)

Individuals who contributed in their personal capacity

Open Ocean
BIGAGLI, EmanueleRisk
BOELENS, RickPollution
BURKE, Lauretta Coral reefs assessment
COMEAU, Steeve Assessment of pteropods
KERSHAW, Peter J.Floating plastics
TALAUE McMANUS, Liana Impact of Sea level rise
TELSZEWSKI, Maciej Projection of oxygen change
TURLEY, Carol Ocean Acidification
Large Marine Ecosystems
TALAUE McMANUS, LianaSocio-economic indicators (lead)
ESTEVANEZ, MariaSocio-economic indicators
O'REILLY, JohnPrimary productivity (lead)
BELKIN, IgorSea Surface Temperature (lead)
BURKE, LaurettaCoral reefs assessment
KLEISNER, Kristin M.Patterns of risk in LMEs (lead)
KERSHAW, Peter Plastic debris (lead)
ARTHUR, CourtneyPlastic debris
ERIKSEN, MarcusPlastic debris
GAGO PIÑEIRO, JésusPlastic debris
LAW, Kara LavenderPlastic debris
LEBRETON, LaurentModelling of floating plastic debris
FOGARTY, MichaelFisheries Production Potential (lead)
ROSENBERG, AndrewFisheries Production Potential
COOPER, AndrewFisheries Production Potential
DICKEY-COLLAS, MarkFisheries Production Potential
FULTON, ElizabethFisheries Production Potential
GUTIÉRREZ, NicholasFisheries Production Potential
HYDE, KimberlyFisheries Production Potential
KLEISNER, KristinFisheries Production Potential
KRISTIANSEN, TrondFisheries Production Potential
LONGO, CatherineFisheries Production Potential
MINTE-VERA, CarolinaFisheries Production Potential
MINTO, CóilínFisheries Production Potential
MOSQUEIRA, IagoFisheries Production Potential
OSIO, Giacomo ChatoFisheries Production Potential
OVANDO, DanielFisheries Production Potential
SELIG, ElizabethFisheries Production Potential
THORSON, JamesFisheries Production Potential
YE, Yemin Fisheries Production Potential

Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee

Andrew RosenbergCenter for Science and Democracy, Union of Concerned Scientists
Ashbindu SinghEnvironmental Pulse Institute
Pierre-Philippe MathieuEuropean Space Agency

Scientific reviewers

The UNESCO-IOC gratefully acknowledges the following for reviewing the Open Ocean (OO) and LMEs assessments:
OOANDERSEN, JesperDenmark Office of the Norwegian Institute for Water Research
LMEsANDERSEN, PaulSecretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme
LMEsBLENCKNER, ThorstenStockholm University
LMEsDICHMONT, CathyCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
OODONEY, ScottWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution
LMEsFisheries expertsFAO
OOGARÇON, VéroniqueLaboratoire d'Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales (LEGOS)
LMEsGLIBERT, PatriciaUniversity of Maryland Center for Environmental Science
LMEsGIOIA, RosalindaCentre for the Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture
OO/LMEsGRANIT, JakobStockholm Environment Institute
OOHAIGH, IvanUniversity of Southampton
OOHARRISON, EdNOAA’s Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory
OOHENNIGE, SebastianHeriot Watt University
OOHOEPFFNER, NicolasEuropean Commission Joint Research Centre
OOHUNT, BrianUniversity of British Columbia
LMEsHSU, AngelYale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies
LMEsJUNGBLUT, VainuupoSecretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme
OOJOSEY, SimonNational Oceanography Centre, Southampton
LMEsKENCHINGTON, RichardUniversity of Wollongong
LMEsKUO, Yi-ChinNational Taiwan Ocean University
OOMAINA, JosephUniversity of Queensland
LMEsMARTONE, RebeccaCenter for Ocean Solutions, Monterey
OOMATHIEU, Pierre PhilippeEuropean Space Agency
LMEsMcCONNEY, PatrickUniversity of the West Indies, Barbados
OONICHOLLS, RobertUniversity Southampton
LMEsOBURA, DavidCORDIO East Africa
LMEsOLSEN, StephenUniversity of Rhodes Island
LMEsOVIATT, CandaceMarine Ecosystems Research Laboratory
LMEsPAULY, DanielUniversity of British Columbia
OOPENDLETON, LinwoodDuke University
OOPIMM, StuartDuke University
OOPOLOVINA, JeffNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
OORYAN, PeterUniversity of Cape Town
OOROCHETTE, JulienInstitute for Sustainable Development and International Relations
OO/LMEsROSENBERG, AndrewUnion of Concerned Scientists
LMEsSHERMAN, KennethNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
LMEsSIMCOCK, AlanUN World Ocean Assessment
LMEsSINGH, AshbinduEnvironmental Pulse Institute
LMEsSPAWN, ArianaYale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies
LMEsTONNEIJCK, FemkeWetlands International
OOWILKINSON, CliveReef and Rainforest Centre, Australia
LMEsWAIRUNGE, DixonNairobi Convention Secretariat
LMEsWALLACE, NancyNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Editorial group

UNESCO-IOC acknowledges the contribution from various photographers (listed in credits at the base of each photo).
Interactive maps and graphics (web version): Bruno Combal, IOC-UNESCO
Website coding and database: João Pedro Bourbon, IOC-UNESCO
IOC-UNESCO support: Isabel Chavez, Fabiola Gaucher, Alejandro Iglesias-Campos, and Laetitia Langlois. Open Ocean
Communication and editing advice for the OneSharedOcean web portal and Open Ocean assessment has been by Ångstrom Group and UNESCO-IOC.
Development of the graphics has been by UNESCO-IOC with support from Ångstrom Group and the European Space Agency.

Large Marine Ecosystems
Scientific editors: Sherry Heileman (UNESCO-IOC) and Kenneth Sherman (NOAA)
Science communication expert and editor: Joan Eamer, Eamer Science and Policy
Maps and graphics designer: Kelly Badger, Eamer Science and Policy
Communication and editing advice for the LMEs assessment report and website: UNESCO-IOC