This LME’s coastal area includes the southern shoreline of the Alaskan Peninsula and Canada’s west coast. It is moderately large in population size and is among the most urbanized LMEs with 7% and 11% living in rural areas in 2010 and 2100, respectively. It covers 634,046 km2, with a density of 13 people per km2 in 2010 and increasing to 15 per km2 in 2100.
The indigent population makes up 15% of the LME’s coastal dwellers. This LME places in the moderate risk category based on percentage and absolute number of poor at nearly 1.3 million (present day estimate).
Revenues and Spatial Wealth Distribution:
Fishing and tourism depend on ecosystem services provided by LMEs. The Gulf of Alaska LME ranks in the moderately high revenue category in fishing revenues based on yearly average total ex-vessel price of almost US 2013 $634 million for the period 2001-2010. Fish protein accounts for 8% of the total animal protein consumption of the coastal population. Its yearly average tourism revenue for 2004-2013 of close to US 2013 $15 billion (thousand million) places it in the moderately high revenue category as well. On average, LME-based tourism income contributes 6% to the national GDPs of the LME coastal states. Spatial distribution of economic activity (e.g. spatial wealth distribution) measured by night-light and population distribution as coarse proxies can range from 0.0000 (totally equal distribution and lowest risk) to 1.0000 (concentrated in 1 place and most inequitable and highest risk). The Night Light Development Index (NLDI) thus indicates the level of spatial economic development, and that for the Gulf of Alaska LME falls in the category with lowest risk.
Human Development Index:
Using the Human Development Index (HDI) that integrates measures of health, education and income, the present-day Gulf of Alaska LME HDI belongs to the highest HDI and lowest risk category. Based on an HDI of 0.905, this LME has an HDI Gap of 0.095, the difference between present and highest possible HDI (1.000). The HDI Gap measures an overall vulnerability to external events such as disease or extreme climate related events, due to less than perfect health, education, and income levels, and is independent of the harshness of and exposure to specific external shocks.
HDI values are projected to the year 2100 in the contexts of shared socioeconomic development pathways (SSPs). The Gulf of Alaska LME is projected to maintain its position in the lowest risk category (highest HDI) in 2100 under a sustainable development pathway or scenario. Under a fragmented world scenario, this LME is projected to slip to the moderate risk category (moderately high HDI) because of reduced income level and bigger population size compared to estimated income and population values in a sustainable development pathway.
Climate-Related Threat Indices:
The Climate-Related Threat Indices utilize the HDI Gaps for present-day and projected 2100 scenarios. The contemporary climate index accounts for deaths and property losses due to storms, flooding and extreme temperatures incurred by coastal states during a 20-year period from 1994 to 2013 as hazard measures, the 2010 coastal population as proxy for exposure, and the present day HDI Gap as vulnerability measure.
The Contemporary Threat Index incorporates a Dependence Factor based on the fish protein contribution to dietary animal protein, and on the mean contribution of LME tourism to the national GDPs of LME coastal states. The HDI Gap and the degree of dependence on LME ecosystem services define the vulnerability of a coastal population. It also includes the average of risk related to extreme climate events, and the risk based on the degrading system states of an LME (e.g. overexploited fisheries, pollution levels, decrease in coastal ecosystem areas).
The 2100 sea level rise threat indices, each computed for the sustainable world and fragmented world development pathways, use the maximum projected sea level rise at the highest level of warming of 8.5 W/m2 in 2100 as hazard measure, development pathway-specific 2100 populations in the 10 m × 10 km coast as exposure metrics, and development pathway-specific 2100 HDI Gaps as vulnerability estimates.
Present day climate threat to the Gulf of Alaska LME is within the low risk (low threat) category. The combined contemporaneous risk due to extreme climate events, degrading LME states and the level of vulnerability of the coastal population, is low. Under a sustainable development scenario, this LME is projected to belong to the lowest risk category that is least threatened by sea level rise in 2100. In a fragmented world development pathway, this LME goes up to the low risk category because of a wider HDI Gap generated by a bigger population and reduced income, with the same hazard level.